AES Research Project 3, Adhesion of Electrodeposits, Part 1, Bibliography

This is Part 1 of a four-part article consisting of the full report of AES Research Project #3, Adhesion of Electrodeposits, done at the University of Michigan in the mid-1940s, following the end of World War II. It consists of the complete bibliography compiled during the project.


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by

Project Director: A.L. Ferguson

Associate: Elmer F. Stephan

Chemistry Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Part 1. Bibliography

Editor's Note: This is Part 1 of a four-part article consisting of the full report of AES Research Project #3, Adhesion of Electrodeposits, done at the University of Michigan in the mid-1940s, following the end of World War II.  It consists of the complete bibliography compiled during the project.  A printable version of this section can be downloaded by clicking HERE.

The first report on this project appeared in the February, 1945 issue of The Monthly Review [not published in the Serial Report – Ed.].  In that report, it was indicated that a thorough survey was being made of the published material on this subject, and a brief summary was given of the general nature of the articles and information covered to that date.  It might be stated here that the remarks made then hold equally well for all published material uncovered since then.  Much assistance has been rendered by members who have sent in copies of bibliographies from their own files.  These were carefully checked against our own and some additions were made in this way.  Readers are urged to submit any additional references known to them.

Another source which it was felt might produce information of real value is the unpublished experience and private files of the members of the Society and others engaged in electroplating.  With this in mind, a circular letter was prepared, copies of which were distributed to every member through the secretaries of the various local Branches.  In addition, about 150 personal letters have been written to men in the electroplating and related fields requesting contributions from their experiences.  An analysis of all information gathered in this manner will be presented in a later report.

Some of the papers in the following bibliography are devoted practically entirely to a study of methods for measuring the adhesion of electrodeposits, some contain rather extensive information on this subject along with other material, but in more papers the subject of adhesion is merely incidental, and the only connection with adhesion may consist in stating the methods used.

The arrangement of the references is according to years and alphabetically for each year.  All of the material contained in these references has been thoroughly analyzed and will be presented in organized form in subsequent papers.

1905

1. Burgess, C.F., "Investigation of the Properties of Zinc Coatings," Electrochemical and Metallurgical Industry, 3, 17-22 (1905).

1910

2. Langmuir, Irving, "The Constitution and Fundamental Properties of Solids and Liquids," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 38, 2221-2295 (1910).

1911

3.McWilliam, Andrew and Barclay, W.R., "The Adhesion of Electrodeposited Silver in Relation to the Nature of the German Silver Basis Metal," J. Inst. Metals, 5, 212-227 (1911).

4. Wen, Ching Yu and Kern, Edward F., "The Effect of Organic and Inorganic ‘Addition Agents’ upon the Electrodeposition of Copper from Electrolytes Containing Arsenic," Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 20, 121-177 (1911).

1915

5. Kalmus, H.T., Harper, C.H. and Savell, W.L., "Electroplating with Cobalt," Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 27, 75-130 (1915).

1916

6. Baldwin, M.W., “Plating Aluminum,” Monthly Rev. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 3, 19-20 (1916).

7. Proctor, C.H., "Alkaline Zinc Solutions and their Application and Commercial Use,” Monthly Rev. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 3, 12-16 Oct. (1916).

1920

8. MacFayden, Lt. W.A., “An Aspect of Electrolytic Iron Deposition,” Trans. Faraday Soc., 14-15, 98-133 (1920).

1922

9. Vuilleumier, E.A., “The Application of Contactometer to the Study of Nickel Deposition,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 42, 99-112 (1922).

1923

10. Blum W. and Rawdon, H.S., “The Influence of the Base Metal on the Structure of Electrodeposits,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 44, 305-312 (1923).

11. Graham, A.K., "Some Relations Between the Micro-Structure of Metal Surfaces and Electrodeposits Made Thereon,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 44, 427-441 (1923).

12. Hughes, B.A., "Electrodeposition of Iron,” Dept. Sci. Ind. Research (Brit.), Bull. No. 6, (1923), 50 pages.

13. Search, R.K, Chromium Plating, Metal Ind. (London), 21, 109-111 (1923).

1925

14. Ollard, K.A., "Adhesion of Deposited Nickel to the Base Metal,” Trans. Faraday Soc., 21, 81-90 (1925).

15. Thomas, C.T. and Blum, William, "The Protective Value of Nickel Plating on Iron and Steel,” Monthly Rev. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 13, 4-9 Sept. (1925); Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 48, 69-102 (1925).

1926

16. Ollard, E.A., "Adhesion of Deposited Nickel to Base Metal,” Trans. Faraday Soc., 21, 81-90 (1926).

17. Scott, Willard H., "Chromium Plating,” Monthly Rev. Electroplaters' Soc., 13, 16-19 Oct. (1926).

18. Stacey, H.A., "Bend Tests of Galvanized Sheet Steel,” An Abstract of Pamphlet No. 1600-C of 35 pp. Mining and Met., 7, 451 (1926).

1927

19.    Faris, C.H., "The Uses of Nickel Deposits for Engineering Purposes,” Trans. Inst. Eng. Shipbuilders Scot., 71, 209-254 (1927-28)

1928

20. Dorsey, F.M., “The Madsenell Process, Its Products and Their Uses,” Ind. Eng. Chem., 20, (1094-1099 (1928).

21. Work, Harold K., “Electroplating on Aluminum and its Alloys,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 53, 361-387 (1928).

1929

22. Brook, G.B. and Stott, G.H., "Notes on Testing of Electrodeposits on Aluminum,” Metal Ind., (London), 34, 439-441 (1929); J. Inst, Metals, 41, 73-89 (1929).

23. Carson, A.F., "The Sherardizing Process,” Metal Cleaning Finishing, 1, 103-104 (1929).

24. Gardam, G.E., "Chromium Plating," J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 4, 112-128 (1929).

25. Macnaughtan, D.J. and Hammond, R.A.F., "The Progress of Nickel Deposition in Recent Years,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 4, 81-100 (1929).

26. Wernick, S., "The Electrodeposition of Cadmium for Rust Prevention,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 4, 101-112 (1929).

1930

27. Bablik, H., "Bending Conditions of Galvanizing,” Iron Age, 125, 1452-1454 (1930).

28. Blum, William and Hogaboom, George B., Principles of Electroplating and Electroforming, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 2nd Ed., 1930, pp. 132-134.

29. Brook, G.B and Stott, G.H., "The Testing of Electrodeposits on Aluminum,” Metal Cleaning Finishing, 2, 777-780 (1930).

30. Work, Harold K., "Electroplating on Aluminum,” Metal Cleaning Finishing, 2, 777-780 (1930).

1931

31. Blum, William, "Adhesion of Electroplated Coatings,” Metals and Alloys, 1031-1032 (1930).

32. Schuh, A.E, "Evaluating of Industrial Finishes,” Ind. Eng. Chem., 23, 1346-1352 (1931).

33. Stout, Lawrence W., "Silver Cadmium Alloys for Metal Finishing,” Metal Cleaning Finishing, 3, 457-460 (1931).

34. Conference on Electroplating Standards, Summary of, Chicago, January 17, 1931, Monthly Rev. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 18, 17-22 Apr. (1931).

1932

35. Ballay, Marcel, "Modern Nickel Plating in France,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 62, 91-108 (1932).

36. Borgmann, C.W., "Testing of Metallic Coatings,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 8, 4-1 to 4-6 (1932).

37. Hothersall, A.W., "The Adhesion of Electrodeposited Nickel to Brass,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 7, 115-141 (1932).

38. Lamoureux, E., "Better Electroplates by Better Polishing,” Metal Industry (New York), 30, 275-277 (1932).

39. Macnaughtan, D.J., "Research and Electrodeposition Practice,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 8, 2-1 to 2-8 (1932).

40. Re, Andrew V., "Plant Practice for Nickel-Plating Aluminum,” Trans. Electrochem, Soc., 61, 337-340 (1932).

41. Vuilleumier, K A., "Peeling of Electrodeposited Nickel,” Proc. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 20, 80-88 (1932).

1933

42. Bannister, L.C., "The Testing of Electrodeposited Coatings,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 9-10, 101-102 (1933).

43. Hothersall, A.W., "The Adhesion of Electrodeposited Coatings to Steel,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 64, 69-85 (1933).

44. Laban, N.R., "The Nickel Plating of Zinc Base Die Castings at High Current Densities,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 8, 6-1 to 6-8 (1933).

45. Mears, R.B., "Control Testing of Metallic Coatings,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 8, 6-43 to 6-56 (1933).

46. Overcash, D.M. and Mathers, F.C., "The Electrodeposition of Magnesiurn,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 64, 305-311 (1933).

47. Piersol, R.J., "Measurement of Adhesion in Electroplates,” Metal Cleaning Finishing, 5, 503-506, 516-517 (1933).

48. Portevin, A. and Cymbaliste, M., "Emploi du Microscope dans l'etude et le controle des revetements electrolytiques,” Rev. met., 30, 323-348 (1933).

49. Work, Harold K., "Practical Problems in Electroplating on Aluminum,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 8, 7-1 to 7-11 (1933).

1934

50. Altmannsberger, K., "The Mechanics of Adherence in Metal Plating,” Metals and Alloys, 6, MA 272 (1934).

51. Fairburn, R.J., "Paint and Lacquer Tests,” Metal Cleaning Finishing, 6, 337-344 (1934).

52. Jacquet, Pierre A., "Adhesion of Electrolytic Copper Deposits,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 66, 393-426 (1934).  -- H. Work in discussion.

53. Jacquet, M.P., "Sur une methode de mesure de l'adherence des depots electrolytiques,” Compt, rend., 198, 1313-1315 (1934).

54. Martin, Ray C., "Abrasion and Adhesion Tests for Lacquer Films,” Metal Cleaning Finishing, 6, 303-306 (1934).

55. Romanoff, F.P., "Ductility and Adhesion of Nickel Deposits,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 65, 385-401 (1934); Proc. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 22, 155-166 (1934).

1935

56. Bannister, L.C., "Testing of Electrodeposited Coatings,” Metals and Alloys, 7, MA 134 (1935); Metal Ind. (London), 46, 701-704 (1935); Metal Cleaning Finishing, 7, 539-542, 545-546 (1935).

57. Bauer, Arndt, and Krause, Chromium Plating, Edward Arnold & Company, (London), 1935.

58. Francis-Carter, C.F.J., "Specifications for Cathodic Coatings,” J. Electrodepositor's Tech. Soc., 10, 69-84 (1935).

59. Monk, R.G. and Ellingham, H.J.T., "Electrodeposition of Tin Alloy from Alkaline Stannate Baths,” Trans. Faraday Soc., 31, 1460-1468 (1935).

60. Romanoff, F.R., "Ductility and Adhesion of Nickel Deposits,” Monthly Rev. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 22, 8-20 Apr. (1935).

61. Thompson, M. DeKay, "The Adhesion of Electrodeposits,” Metal Cleaning Finishing, 7, 83-85 (1935).

62. Wernick, S., "The Specifications of Electrodeposited Coatings,” Ind. Chemist, 11, 315-317 (1935).

1936

63. Braund, D.K. and Sutton, H., "Electrodeposition of Zinc and Cadmium on Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 11, 57-73 (1936).

64. Clarke, S.G., "The Electrodeposition and Properties of Black Lead Peroxide Coatings,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 12, 26-36 (1936).

65. Finkbone, B.P., "Testing Adherence of Galvanized Coatings,” J. Am. Zinc Inst., 17, 76-80 (1936).

66. Kerr, R. and Macnaughtan, D.J., "The Production of Black Anodic Coatings on Tin and Tin Alloys,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 12, 19-25 (1936).

67. Lyons, Ernest H., "Adhesion of Galvanized Coatings on Steel Wire,” Wire and Wire Products, 11, 655-674 (1936).

68. McKay, Robert J., "Technical Properties and Control in Nickel Plating,” Metal Cleaning Finishing, 8, 461-468 (1936).

69. Mesle, F.C., "Plating to Specification,” Metal Cleaning Finishing, 8, 381-392 (1936).

70. Templin, R.L., "Ductility Testing of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Sheet,” Proc. Am. Soc. Testing Materials, 36, 239 (1936).

71. Weisberg, Louis, "Use of Cobalt-Nickel Solution to Produce Bright Electrodeposits,” Steel, 99, 43-46 (1936).

72. Young, S.B.F. and Gould, N.A., "Nickel and Cobalt Alloy Plating from Acid Sulfate Solution,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 69, 585-597 (1936). -- Bonilla in discussion on p. 596.

1937

73. Arlt, H.G., "Study of Conical Mandrel Test for Attached Lacquer Films,” ASTM Bulletin, Dec., 1937.

74. Ballay, M., "French Nickel Plating Practice,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 13, 4-1 to 4-11 (1937).

75. Bonilla, Chas. F., "Heavy Nickel and Chromium Deposition in England,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 71, 263-278 (1937).

76. Corbin, M.R., "Setting up Specifications for Protective Coatings,” Products Finishing,” 1, 24-28 (1937).

77. Egeberg, B. and Promisel, N.E., "Testing and Stripping of Electrodeposits,” Metal Cleaning Finishing, 9, 493-497 (1937).

78. Egeberg, B. and Promisel, N.E., "Testing and Stripping of Electrodeposits,” Metal Cleaning Finishing, 9, 25-32, 37-40, 50, 655-662, 731-737 (1937).

1938

79. Brockman, C.J. and Mote, John H., "Alkaline Plating Baths Containing Organic Amines,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 73, 371-376 (1938). -- E.M. Baker in discussion on p. 374.

80. Egeberg, B. and Promisel, N.E., "Testing and Stripping of Electrodeposits,” Metal Cleaning Finishing, 10, 270-274 (1938).

81. Helling, Werner, and Neunzig, Heinrich, "Electrolytic Deposition of Copper on Aluminum after Previous Chemical Oxidation,” Aluminium, 19, 302, 305 (1937); Metal Cleaning Finishing, 10, 372 (1938).

82. Hirsch, Albert, "Cathode Efficiency of Electroplating Barrels and its Effect on the Adhesion of Nickel Deposits,” Monthly Rev. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 25, 190-195 (1938).

83. Hothersall, A.W. and Leadbeater, C.J., "The Nickel and Chromium Plating of Tin Plate,” Intern. Tin Research Development Council, Tech. Pub. A, 79, 207-228 (1938); J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 14, 207-228 (1938).

84. Hothersall, A.W. and Gardam, G.K, "The Value of an Alternate Bend Test in the Examination of Nickel Deposits,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 14, 73-84 (1938).

85. Martin, Ray C., "Testing of Modern Finishes,” Products Finishing, 2, 7-13 (1938).

86. Mathers, F.C. and Gilbertson, L.I., "The Adherence of Thick Silver Plate on Steel" Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 74, 287-304 (1938).

87. Special Committee of Section on Bend Tests for Ductility, "Report on Study of Cup Testing of Sheet Steel,” Proc. Am. Soc. Testing Materials, 38, 490 (1938).

88. Wernick, S., "Bright Nickel Plating of Zinc Base Die Castings,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 14, 154-162 (1938).

89. Wheeler, Robert B., "Testing Machines for Organic Finishes,” Products Finishing, 2, 14-22 (1938).

90. Wood, Donald A., "A Simple Method of Plating Nickel on Stainless Steel,” Metal Ind. (New York), 36, 330-331 (1938).

1939

91. Ballay, M., "Electrolytic Deposits in France,” Proc. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 27, 30-36 (1939).

92. Burns, R.M. and Schuh, A.K, Protective Coatings for Metals, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, 1939, pp. 82-83,238.

93. Gardner, H.A., Physical and Chemical Examination, Paints, Varnishes, Lacquers, Colors, Inst. of Paint and Varnish Research, Washington, DC, 9th ed., 1939.

94. Hothersall, A.W., "Notes on the Adhesion of Electrodeposited Metal to Steel,” Proc. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 27, 1-8 (1939).

95. Hothersall, A.W., "A Suggested Basis for Specifications of Electroplated Coatings of Nickel and Chromium,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 15, 195-204 (1939).

96. Mesle, Frank C., "The Adhesion of Electrodeposits,” Proc. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 27, 152-170 (1939).

97. West, E.G., "Barrel Polishing,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 15, 185-194 (1939).

98. Yates, Raymond, "Electroplating on Aluminum,” Products Finishing, 3, 40-46 (1939).

1940

99. Ewing, Dwight T. and Jernstedt, Geo. W., "The Cathodic Treatment of Copper in a Solution of Beryllium Sulfate to Prevent Tarnishing,” Proc. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 28, 105-112 (1940).

100. Glasstone, S., Textbook of Physical Chemistry, D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, 1940, p. 1179.

101. Imhoff, Wallace G., "How Durable Are Hot-Dip Zinc Coatings?" Products Finishing, 4, 24-36 (1940).

102. L'Association Francoise de Normalisation Specification, A4-2, 1940.

103. Lewis, B.F., "The Relationship of Cleaning Techniques and Adhesion of Electrodeposits,” Proc. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 28, 64-70 (1940).

104. Mesle, F.C., "The Adhesion of Electrodeposits,” Metals and Alloys, 11, MA 262 (1940).

105. Oplinger, F.F., "The Plating and Heating of Zine Base Die Castings,” Proc. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 28, 70-81 (1940).

106. Products Finishing (Editorial Supplement), 4, 51 (1940).

107. Roehl, E.J., "Adhesion of Nickel Deposits,” Iron Age, 146, 17-20, 30-33 (1940).

108. Simon, A.C. and Lumley, J.T., “Silver Plating at Very High Current Densities,” Proc. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 28, 91-95 (1940).

109. Wernick, S., "Factors in the Production of Perfect Nickel Plating,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 16, 35-44 (1940).

1941

110. Lyons, Ernest H., "Acid Zinc Plating,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 80, 387-405 (1941); Modern Electroplating, The Electrochemical Society, New York, 1942, pp. 343-358.

111. Meyer, Walter R., "Effects of Impurities in Plating Solutions,” Proc. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 29, 65-88 (1941).

112. Pinner, W.L., Soderberg, G. and Baker, E.M., "Nickel Plating,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 80, 539-578 (1941); Modern Electroplating, The Electrochemical Society, New York, 1942, pp. 235-274.

113. Roehl, E.J., “Adhesion of Nickel Deposits,” Metal Finishing, 39, 182-187 (1941).

114. Faust, Chas. L., “Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 80, 275-276 (1941); Modern Electroplating, The Electrochemical Society, New York, 1942, pp. 271-272.

1942

115. Blum, W., Beckman, W.O. and Meyer, W.R., Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 80, 282-283 (1941); Modern Electroplating, The Electrochemical Society, New York, 1942, pp. 40-41.

116. Crosby, H. Lance and Gilbertson, L.I., “The Adherence of Thick Silver Plate on Steel, Part II,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 82, 101-111 (1942); -- Mullins in discussion on P. 110.

117. Krause, Hugo, "Heavy Electrodeposited Coatings of Silver in the Chemical Industry," Chemical Abstracts, 36, 5710 (1942).

118. Loose, W.S., "Nickel Plating Magnesium Alloys," Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 81, 215-230 (1942).

119. Lo Presti, P.J., "Silver Plating Steel over a Phosphate Coating," Metal Finishing, 40, 533-536 (1942).

120. Pell-Walpole, W.T., Prytherch, J.C. and Chalmers, B., "An Investigation of the Factors Governing the Adhesion of Tin-base Bearing Metal," J. Inst. Metals, 68, 217-256 (1942).

121. Wesley, W.A. and Roehl, W.J., "The Deposition of Hard Nickel,” Products Finishing, 7, 10-32 (1942); Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 82, 37-53 (1942).

122. Wilson, R.E., "The Employment of Electrochemical Deposition in the Manufacturing and Maintenance of Automobiles,” Proc. Inst. Automobile Eng., 36, 211-233 (1941-42).

123. Yates, Raymond, "Plating on Aluminum,” Metals and Alloys, 16, 1084-1088 (1942).

1943

124. Ap Roberts, James P., "Problems and Methods for Plating on Magnesium,” Monthly Rev. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 30, 275-283 (1943).

125. Army Service Forces, Office Chief of Ordnance, Washington 25, DC, "Adhesion Test,” U.S. Army Specification No. 57-0-2, Paragraph F-7, 1943.

126. Hiller, Robert, “A Discussion of Methods for Control Analysis of Electrodeposited Coatings Used on Aircraft Parts,” Monthly Rev. Am. Electroplaters’ Soc., 30, 786-796 (1943).

127. Lo Presti, Phillip J., “Corrosion Resistance of Silver Plated Steel,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 84, 335-346 (1943).

128. Yates, Raymond, “Plating Aluminum,” Monthly Rev. Am. Electroplaters’ Soc., 30, 173 (1943).

1944

129. Clark, Geo. L., Fisk, Geo. and Weeg, Leonard B., "Bonding and Structural Variations of Commercial Electroplatings,” J. Applied Phys., 15, 193-200 (1944).

130. HothersalI, A.W. and Leadbeater, C.J., "Inspection Tests for the Adhesion of Electroplated Coatings with Particular Reference to the B.N.F. Adhesion Test,” J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 19, 49-62 (1944); Metal Finishing, 43, 191-194, 245-246 (1945).

131. Wernick, S., "Secretary's Report to Annual General Meeting of The Electrodepositors' Technical Society,” Metal Ind. (London), 54, 861 (1944).

1945

132. British Standard Specifications, No. 1224, 1945.

133. "The Handkerchief Test,” Iron Age, 155, 26 (1945).

134. Lewis, B.F., "Adhesion of Electrodeposits,” Monthly Rev. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 32, 139-147 (1945).

 

Supplementary references to original 1945 publication of the bibliography

135. Firestone, F.A., Operators Handbook, Type A Reflectoscope, Dep't of Engineering Research, University of Michigan, Dec. 1942.

136. Firestone, F.A., "The Supersonic Reflectoscope, An Instrument for Interior Inspection of Metals." Metal Progress, 48, 505-512, (1945).

137. Von Claus, B., "Uber eine neue Methode und Einrichtung zur Erzeugung hochdisperser Zustand," Z. Tech. Phys., 16, 80-82 (1935).

138. Von Claus, B., "Uber ein neues Zerstaubungsgerat," Z. Tech. Phys., 16, 202-205 (1935).

139. Bergmann, L., Der Ultraschall und seine Anwendung in Wissenschaft und Technik, Edwards Brothers, Ann Arbor (1944); p. 44.

140. Hallworth, F.D., Private Communication.

141. Almen, J.O., "Shot Blasting to Increase Fatigue Resistance," J. Soc. Autom. Engrs., 51, 248, 268 (1943).

 

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