Electroplating, Electrochemistry and Electronics - The 15th William Blum Lecture - Part 4 References and Biography

This article is the last of four parts of a re-publication of the 15th William Blum Lecture, presented at the 61st AES Annual Convention in Chicago, Illinois, on June 17, 1974. This section contains the reference/citation list and the author biography.


Related Topics:

by

George Dubpernell

M&T Chemicals

Ferndale, Michigan

Recipient of the 1973 William Blum

AES Scientific Achievement Award

 

Reference List and Author Biography

Editor’s Note: This paper comprises the reference/citation list and author biography of Dr. George Dubpernell for the 15th William Blum Lecture, presented at the 61st AES Annual Convention in Cleveland, on June 17, 1974.  A printable PDF version of Part 4 is available by clicking HERE.  A printable PDF version of the complete 44-page paper is available by clicking HERE.

References

1.      B. Dibner, Galvani-Volta, Burndy Library, Norwalk, Conn., 1952.

2.      Die Begrundung Der Elektrochemie (The Founding of Electrochemistry by Johann Wilhelm Ritter), Armin Hermann, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Akademische Verlagsgesell-schaft, 1968.

3.      G. Dubpernell, Plating, 46, 599 (1959).

4.      D.O. Woodbury, A Measure For Greatness - A Short Biography of Edward Weston, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY, 1949.

5.      Our Journal, published monthly by the Metal Polishers, Buffers, Platers, Brass and Silver Workers Union of North America, 23, 52 (April, 1914).

6.      Metal Ind. (TV. Y.), 5, 163 (June, 1907).

7.      ibid., 7, 148, 155, (April, 1909); 190, (May 1909).

8.      ibid., 11, 274 (June, 1913).

9.      ibid., l, 460 (December, 1909); 8, 46, (January, 1910).

10.    G. Dubpernell, Proc. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 33, 244 (1946).

11.    H.J.T. Ellingham, J. Electrodepositors' Tech. Soc., 10, 109 (1935).

12.    H.J.T. Ellingham, ibid., 16, 1 (1940).

13.    W. Blum, Monthly Rev. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 27, 923 (1940).

14.    G. Dubpernell, in Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed., 1974; p. 691.

15.    Anon., Chem. Eng. News, 49, 12 (February 22, 1971).

16.    F.T. Taylor, Mining Met., 10, 475 (October, 1929); Brass World, 25, 235 (October 1929).

17.    W. Blum, Proc. Australian Federal Convention, American Electroplaters' Society, 11 (May 18, 1953).

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19.    W.A. Donakowski and W.S. Springer, Plating, 58, 1094 (1971).

20.    U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Industrial Reports; Inorganic Chemicals - 1972, Washington, D.C. 20233, December, 1973.

21.    G. Dubpernell, Electrodeposition of Chromium - Theory and Practice, in preparation.

22.    J.B. Rosenbaum, R.R. Lloyd and C.C. Merrill, Electrowinning Chromium Metal, Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 5322, March, 1957.

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48.    H. Jorgensen, Redox-Maalinger (Redox Measurements), Jul. Gjellerups Forlag a-s, Copenhagen, 1945.

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52.    A.R. Willey, Brit. Corrosion J., 7 (1), 29 (1972).

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54.    J.P. Carr and N.A. Hampson, ibid., 17 (12), 2117 (1972).

55.    J. O'M. Bockris, J. Chem. Educ., 48 (6), 352 (1971).

56.    R. Kremann and R. Muller, in Ostwald - Drucker's Handbuch der allgemeinen Chemie (Handbook of General Chemistry), Vol. VIII, Part 1, Electromotive Force, 1930; Part 2, Electrolysis and Polarisation, Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft MbH, Leipzig, 1931.

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63.    H.J.S. Sand, J. Grant and W.V. Lloyd, J. Chem. Soc., 129, 378 (1927).

64.    G. Dubpernell and R. Dubpernell, Plating, 40, 53, 151 (1953).

65.    P. Mazzamaro and G. Tatoian, Anal. Chem., 26, 1512 (1954).

66.    G. Dubpernell and D.J. Kenney, The Theory of Hydrogen Overvoltage Cathode Potentials on Mercury in Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate Solutions with Varying Current Density, Extended Abstracts, 19th Meeting, C.I.T.C.E., Detroit, Michigan, September 22-27, 1968, pages 126-130.

67.    Kuo-Ming Wu, Cathode Potentials on Mercury in Sulfuric Acid and Neutral Salt Solutions With Varying Current Density, a Thesis submitted at The University of Detroit in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Master of Science, 1970.

68.    W.M. Fatimer, Oxidation Potentials, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, NY, 1952.

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70.    M. Anbar and E.J. Hart, The Hydrated Electron, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1970.

71.    L. Bleekrode, Phil. Mag., 5 (5) 375, 439 (1878).

72.    H.P. Cady., Phys. Chem.. 1, 707 (1897).

73.    D.C. Walker, Can. J. Chem., 44, 2226 (1966).

74.    D.C. Walker, ibid., 45, 807 (1967).

75.    D.C. Walker, Anal. Chem., 39, 896 (1967).

76.    G.A. Kenney and D.C. Walker, in Vol. 5 of Electroanalytical Chemistry - A Series of Advances, A.J. Bard, ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, 1971, pp. 1-66.

77.    D. Postl and U. Schindewolf, Ber. Gunsen-Ges., 75, 662 (1971).

78.    B.A. Rogers, The Nature of Metals, The M.l.T. Press, (paperback edition), Cambridge, Mass., 1964.

79.    C.H. Desch, The Chemistry of Solids, Cornell University Press, Ithaca. NY, 1934; p. 53.

80.    Effect of Surface on the Behavior of Metals. Four lectures delivered at the Institution of Metallurgists, Philosophical Library, New York, NY, 1958; p. 11.

81.    F. Zwicky, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 15 ,253 (1929).

82.    Ductile Chromium and Its Alloys, Conference Proceedings, American Society for Metals, Cleveland, Ohio, 1957.

83.    Handbuch der Physik (Handbook for Physics), 2nd ed., ed. by H. Geiger and K. Scheel, Vol. XXIV, Part 2, Structure of Coherent Matter (in German), Verlag Von Julius Springer, Berlin, 1933.

84.    Imperfections in Nearly Perfect Crystals, ed. by W. Shockley, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1952.

85.    Progress in Metal Physics - Vol. 6, ed. by B. Chalmers and R. King, Pergamon Press, New York, NY, 1956; p. 236.

86.    M.J. Buerger, Z. Krist., 89, 195 (1934) (in English).

87.    J.H. de Boer, The Dynamical Character of Adsorption, The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1953.

88.    V.V. Andreeva, Corrosion, 20, 35t (1964).

89.    J.E. Holliday and R.P. Frankenthal, J. Electrochem. Soc., 119, 1190 (1972).

90.    The Surface Chemistry of Metals and Semiconductors, H.C. Gatos, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1960.

91.    A. Many, Y. Goldstein and N.B. Grover, Semiconductor Surfaces, American Elsevier Publishing Co., New York, NY, 1965.

92.    Clean Surfaces: Their Preparation and Characterization for Interfacial Studies, G. Goldfinger, ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, 1970.

93.    Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, J. O'M. Bockris and B.E. Conway, eds., Butterworths Scientific Publications, London, 1954.

94.    Single Crystal Films, M.H. Francombe and H. Sato, eds., Pergamon Press Ltd. and The Macmillan Co., New York, NY, 1964.

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96.    Physics of Thin Films, Volume 6, M.H. Francombe and R.W. Hoffman, eds., Academic Press, New York, NY, 1971.

97.    K.L. Chopra, Thin Film Phenomena, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY, 1964.

98.    P.J. Dobson, Gold Bulletin, 7 (1), 15 (1974).

99.    T. Kuwana, Ber. Bunsen Ges., 77, 858 (1973) (In English).

100.  Electrolytic Hardening - Heating Metals and Alloys in Electrolytes, I.Z. Yasnogorodskii (in German, translated from the Russian book of 1949), Verlag Technik, Berlin, 1951. English translation of the first 76 pages, in four parts. Translations No. 3204, 3205, 3210 and 3211, Henry Brutcher, Altadena, Calif.

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103.  E. Eichhorn, Metall., 25, 1351 (1971); 26, 110 (1972) (through C.A. 76:148244x).

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105.  C.O. Burgess, Metallic and Non-Metallic Coatings for Gray Iron, Gray Iron Founders' Society, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, 1950.

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107.  J. Haas Jr., U.S. Patent 1,451,543 (April 10, 1923).

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111.  H.J. Read and J.A. Strasser, ibid., 57, 229 (1970).

112.  H.E. Haring and W.P. Barrows, "Electrodeposition of Chromium From Chromic Acid Baths," Technologic Papers of the Bureau of Standards, No. 346, (Vol. 21) 413 (1927).

113.  G. Pfleiderer, U.S. Patent 1,818,579 (August 11, 1931).

114.  M.C. Carosella, U.S. Patent 2,849,354 (August 26, 1958).

115.  M.C. Carosella, J.H. Jacobs and T.R. McNeill, U.S. Patent 2,872,395 (February 3, 1959).

116.  N.E. Ryan, "The Production of High Purity Chromium From Fluoride Containing Electrolytes," Report ARL/MET. 26, Melbourne Commonwealth of Australia, Aeronautical Research Laboratories, October, 1957; J. Electrochem. Soc., 107, 397 (1960).

117.  M.A. Shluger and A.A. Mikhailova, Proc. 3rd Int. Cong. On Metallic Corrosion, Moscow, 1966, Vol. III, Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam, 1969, (In English); p. 296.

118.  M.A. Shluger and E.N. Osbenkova, Soviet Electrochemistry, 5 (9), 1010 (1969). (In English).

119.  R.D. Bedi, Plating, 55, 238(1968).

120.  R.D. Bedi and G. Dubpernell, ibid., 55, 246(1968).

121.  R.D. Bedi and G. Dubpernell, U.S. Patent 3.415,723 (December 10, 1968).

122.  T.J. Glover, British Cast Iron Res. Assoc. J., 9, 95 (1961).

123.  G. Jangg and E. Burger, Electrochimica Acta, 17, 1883 (1972), (In German).

124.  F. Huba and J.E. Bride, U.S. Patent 3,706,641 (December 19, 1972).

125.  I.F. Patai and M.A. Pomerantz, J. Franklin Inst., 252, 239 (1951).

126.  I. Langmuir, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc., 29, 125 (1916).

127.  "Letters of Alessandro Volta On Animal Electricity, (1792-1795)," ed. A. J. von Oettingen, (in German), Ostwald's Klassiker No. 114, Leipzig, Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, 1900.

128.  "Interaction of Liquids At Solid Substrates," A.L. Alexander, ed., Advances In Chemistry Series No. 87, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C, 1968.

129.  Lord Kelvin, Royal Institution Proc., 15, 521 (1897); Phil. Mag. (5th Series), 46, 82 (1898).

130.  W.A. Zisman, Rev. Sci. Instr., 3, 367 (1932).

131.  The Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, C.A. Hampel. ed., Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, NY, 1964.

132.  H.B. Michaehon, J. Appl. Phys., 21, 536-540 (1950).

133.  T. Fort Jr. and R.L. Wells, Surface Science, 12 (1), 46 (1968).

134.  F. Steinrisser and R.E. Hetrick, Rev. Sci. Instruments, 42 (3), 304 (1971).

135.  R.W. Gurney, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 136A, 378 (1932).

136.  R.W. Gurney, Ions In Solution, Cambridge University Press, 1936.

137.  O. Klein and E. Lange, Z. Elektrochem., 43, 570-584, 826, (1937).

138.  O. Klein and E. Lange, Z. Elektrochemie, 44, 542 (1938).

139.  O. Klein and E. Lange, ibid.. 44, 562 (1938).

140.  E. Lange and H. Gohr, Thermodynamic Electrochemistry, (in German), Dr. Alfred Hiithig Verlag Gmbh, Heidelberg, 1962.

141.  J.A.V. Butler, Electrical Phenomena At Interfaces In Chemistry, Physics and Biology, Methuen and Co., Ltd., London, 1951.

142.  R.G. Bates, Determination of pH - Theory and Practice," 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1973.

143.  D.J.G. Ives and G.J. Janz, Reference Electrodes - Theory and Practice, Academic Press, New York, NY, 1961.

144.  G.W. Neff, C.J. Sambucetti and J.E. Tomko, U.S. Patent 3,689,378 (September 5, 1972).

145.  W.T. Grubb and L.H. King, U.S. Patent 3,709,810 (January 3, 1973).

146.  N.C. Cahoon, Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 68, 177 (1935).

147.  N.C. Cahoon, Electrochem. Technol., 3, 3 (1965).

148.  S.J. French and L. Kahlenberg, Trans. Amer. Electrochem. Soc., 54, 163 (1928).

149.  J.O. Closs and L. Kahlenberg, Trans. Amer. Electrochem. Soc., 54, 369 (1928).

150.  W. Nernst, Z. Physik, Chem., 4, 129 (1889).

151.  S. Glasstone, The Electrochemistry of Solutions, Methuen & Co., Ltd., London, 1930.

151a. W.D. Bancroft, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc., 4, 175 (1903).

152.  A.T. Lincoln, Ind. Eng. Chem. (News Edition), 16, 336 (June 10, 1938).

153.  N.F. Hall, Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci., 39, 83 (1949); 40, 173 (1950).

154.  L. Kahlenberg, A.A. Koch and R.D. Hall, Bull. Univ. Wisconsin No. 47, Science Ser., Vol. 2, No. 5, 297 (February, 1901).

155.  L. Kahlenberg, Trans. Amer. Electrochem. Soc., 1, 119 (1902).

156.  L. Kahlenberg, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1, 42 (1905).

157.  L. Kahlenberg, Chemiker-Zeit., 29 (81), 1081 (October 11, 1905).

158.  G.N. Lewis, Z. Physik, Chem., 70, 212 (1910); without references: Science, 30, 1 (July 2, 1909).

159.  L. Kahlenberg, Outlines of Chemistry, 2nd ed., The Macmillan Company, New York, NY, 1915.

160.  L. Kahlenberg, discussion to paper by V.K. LaMer, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc., 51, 556 (1927).

161.  W.D. Bancroft, ibid., 51, 25 (1927).

162.  K. Schwabe, Electrochim. Acta, 12, 67 (1967).

163.  K. Schwabe and Chr. Voigt, J. Electrochem. Soc., 113, 886 (1966).

164.  M.S. Frant, Plating, 58, 686 (1971).

165.  F. Oehme, S. Ertl and L. Dolezalova, Oberflaeche - Surface, 10, 597(1969).

166.  M. Pourbaix, Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions, Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, NY, 1966. 

167.  M. Pourbaix, Lectures on Electrochemical Corrosion, Plenum Press, New York, 1973.

168.  M.J.N. Pourbaix, Thermodynamics of Dilute Aqueous Solutions, Edward Arnold & Co., London, 1949.

169.  P.F. Mottelay, Bibliographical History of Electricity and Magnetism, Chronologically Arranged, Charles Griffin & Company, Ltd., London, 1922.

170.  L. Galvani, Commentary on the Effect of Electricity on Muscular Motion, Trans. R.M. Green, Cambridge, Mass., Elizabeth Licht, Publisher, 1953.

171.  Bioelectrogenesis - A Comparative Survey of Its Mechanisms with Particular Emphasis on Electric Fishes, C. Chagas and A. P. deCarvalho, eds., Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1961.

172.  W.W. Lutz, Detroit News, 1, (June 24, 1958).

173.  J.W. Hushen, ibid., 19 (June 25, 1958).

174.  C.R. Bastiaans, Chem. Eng. News, 45, 88 (Oct. 16, 1967).

175.  Electrochemistry in Biology and Medicine, T. Shedlovsky, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1955.

176.  R.H. Beutner, "Electrochemistry Applied to Electrophysiology," Extended Abstract No. 142, Theoretical Electrochemistry Division, The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, N. J., The Electrochemical Society, May 3, 1956; p. 87.

177.  R.H. Beutner, Rev. Euclides, 15, 322 (1955). (See for references to other publications.)

178.  The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, 31, 19 (1944).

179.  G.W. Crile, A Bipolar Theory of Living Processes, The Macmillan Company, New York, NY, 1926.

180.  G.W. Crile, The Phenomena of Life - A Radio-Electric Interpretation, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York, NY, 1936.

181.  E.E. Suckling, The Living Battery - An Introduction to Bio-electricity, The Macmillan Company, New York, NY, 1964.

182.  W. Kollath, Regulators of Life - On the Nature of Redox Systems, Karl F. Haug Verlag, Heidelberg, 1968.

183.  Electrochemical Bioscience and Bioengineering, H.T. Silverman, I.F. Miller and A.J. Salkind, eds., The Electrochemical Society, Inc., Princeton, N.J., 1973.

184.  R.O. Becker, Nature, 235, 109 (January 14, 1972).

185.  Alessandro Volta's Investigations on The Galvanic Phenomena 1796-1800, (in German), ed. A. J. von Oettingen, Ostwald's Klassiker No. 118, Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, 1900.

186.  J.W. Ritter, The Electric System of Substances, (in German), C.H. Reclam, Leipzig, 1805.

187.  J.W. Richards, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc., 6, 152 (1904).

188.  L. Kahlenberg, ibid., 13, 265 (1908).

189.  H.S. Lukens, Proc. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 23, 186 (1935); also in Monthly Rev. Am. Electroplaters' Soc., 23 (5), 30 (May, 1936), but without figures.

190.  A. Brenner, J. Electrochem. Soc., 107, 968 (1960).

191.  P. Feigelson, ed., Annals New York Acad. Sci., 158 (1), 1 (May 16, 1969).

192.  A.I. Gubanov, Quantum Electron Theory of Amorphous Conductors, Consultants Bureau, New York, NY, 1965.

193.  Structure and Properties of Solid Surfaces, R. Gomer and C.S. Smith, eds., The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1953; p. 117.

194.  Structure and Properties of Metal Surfaces, Honda Memorial Series on Materials Science, #1, Maruzen Company, Ltd., Tokyo, 1973. (Paper by D.S. Boudreaux and H.J. Juretschke, pp. 93-126).

195.  A.F. Bogenschtitz, Oberflaechentechnik und Galvanotechnik in der Elektronik (Surface Techniques and Electroplating in Electronics), Eugen G. Leuze Verlag, Saulgau/Württ., Germany, 1971. (English edition in preparation by Portcullis Press, London, England.)

196.  A.F. Bogenschutz, Galvanotechnik, 59, 580 (July, 1968); Tijd-schrift voor Oppervlakte Technieken van Metallen, 13 (6). 230 (October, 1969).

197.  A.K. Vijh, Electrochemistry of Metals and Semiconductors  - The Application of Solid State Science to Electrochemical Phenomena, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, 1973.

 About the author

Excepting the last sentence, this piece was written at the time Dr. Dubpernell was announced as the recipient of the 1973 Scientific Achievement Award:

� Dr. George Dubpernell, a pioneer researcher in chromium plating and a world renowned expert in the history of electroplating, was chosen by the AES Scientific Achievement Award Selection Committee as the 1973 recipient.  The announcement was made at the opening session of the 60th Annual Technical Conference of the American Electroplaters' Society.

Previously, Dr. Dubpernell was made a national honorary member of the Society at the National Convention in 1966.  He has twice received the chromium plating award from the Society, first in 1960 and again in 1970, for outstanding papers on chromium plating.  His earliest technical talk before an AES group was on chromium plating before the Detroit Branch in September, 1924.  He became a member of the AES in 1925.  He is the only U.S. charter member of the Institute of Metal Finishing, which he joined in 1926.

Dr. Dubpernell was active consultant for M&T Chemicals Inc. since his retirement in 1966 after 33 years of continuous service in the plating research department.  From 1944 to 1955, he was manager of the Waterbury laboratories.

Dr. Dubpernell’s contributions to industry include the insoluble ball anode basket in the late 1920s, and the first detailed investigation of chromate conversion coatings on cadmium and zinc in the early 1930s.  Both studies resulted in important patents.  His work on chromium plating with Dr. Colin G. Fink at Columbia University in 1925-1927 included the establishment of bright plating ranges for large numbers of chromium bath compositions.  He is perhaps most noted for publications on chromium plating in many editions of the Metal Finishing Guidebook and the Electrochemical Society's Modern Electroplating.  The test he originated for revealing the crack patterns in chromium deposits is widely used and is known as the "Dubpernell test."

With United Chromium, Incorporated in Waterbury, Connecticut, from 1933 on, Dr. Dubpernell worked out successful conditions and equipment for barrel chromium plating which are still widely used.  The barrel chromium plating work led to intensive development of insulating coatings for use in chromium plating baths.  These included the formulation of stop-off lacquers and waxes, and rack coating compositions.  This business grew into what is now M&T's Organic Coatings Division.

Born in Detroit, Michigan, May 30, 1901, Dr. Dubpernell became imbued with the desire to become a scientist while still in elementary school, and as a result attended Cass Technical High School where he graduated in January, 1919.  Two years of experience as a lead plater at the Detroit Battery Company followed and was combined with two years of pre-engineering college training at Detroit Junior College (now Wayne State University).  Dr. Dubpernell then worked as a zinc plater with the Harris Zinc Process Company of Hamtramck, Michigan.

Entering the University of Michigan in September, 1922, Dr. Dubpernell graduated in June, 1924 with the degree of B.Sc. in Ch.E.  Here he studied under both Professor A.L. Ferguson and Professor E.M. Baker.  He was employed in the laboratories of Dr. Colin G. Fink at Columbia University for two years, 1925-1927.  During this time he also attended classes, and received an A.M. degree in Ch.E. from Columbia in 1927.

Returning to the University of Michigan in September, 1927, Dr. Dubpernell continued his studies towards a Ph.D. degree in chemistry under Professor A.L. Ferguson and was awarded this degree in August, 1933, for work on hydrogen overvoltage and the diffusion of hydrogen through platinum and palladium.  During this period he commuted to Detroit, Michigan, where he was employed by the General Chromium Corporation and then by the Udylite Process Company.

Dr. Dubpernell married Grace Greenville Hossack of Jersey City, New Jersey, May 28, 1927.  The Dubpernell's have three daughters, all married, and nine grandchildren.  In the course of keeping in touch with the progress of their children and grandchildren, Dr. Dubpernell and his wife traveled in all 50 states.  Travel is also something of a family hobby, and after retirement, they took two cruises around the world and the North Cape cruise into the Arctic.

After he retired in 1966, Dr. Dubpernell did research work at the University of Detroit continuing his earlier investigations into the nature of hydrogen overvoltage.

Dr. Dubpernell's major hobby was book collecting, and he amassed what is probably the most complete private library of electroplating books and magazines.  He served the AES Detroit Branch energetically as Branch historian.  He has passed through various stages as a gardener, and took most pleasure from gratifying a youthful desire to raise apples.

Dr. Dubpernell passed away on June 16, 1992.

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