An Overview of Hard Chromium Plating Using Trivalent Chromium Solutions

For more than forty years, academic and industrial researchers from all over the world have taken a strong interest in alternative processes for hard chromium plating using hexavalent ions. The benefits of substitute processes are obvious, as the toxic and carcinogenic aspects of hexavalent chromium are well known.
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Passivation Basics

What is commonly referred to as "passivating" on a shop floor is actually just enhancement of a naturally occurring process on most stainless steels.